JMIR Publications

We are scheduled to perform a server upgrade on Thursday, November 30, 2017 between 4 and 6 PM Eastern Time.

Please refrain from submitting support requests related to server downtime during this window.

JMIR Cancer

Patient-Centered Innovations, Education and Technology for Cancer Care, Cancer Survivorship and Cancer Research


Journal Description

JMIR Cancer (JC) is a Pubmed-indexed, peer-reviewed journal with a focus on education, innovation and technology in cancer care, cancer survivorship and cancer research, as well as in participatory and patient-centred approaches. A sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), a leading eHealth journal (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175), the scope of JC is broader and includes non-Internet approaches to improve cancer care and cancer research.

We invite submission of original research, viewpoints, reviews, tutorials, case studies, and non-conventional articles (e.g. open patient education material and software resources that are not yet evaluated but free for others to use/implement). 

In our "Patients' Corner", we invite patients and survivors to submit short essays and viewpoints on all aspects of cancer, but in particular suggestions on how to improve the health care system, and suggestions for new technologies, applications and approaches (no article processing fees).

JC is open access and all articles are published under a Creative Commons Attribution license. JC has been accepted for indexing in PubMed Central and Pubmed.


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Placeit; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Internet-Based Group Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Survivors: Feasibility and Preliminary Results


    Background: Development of psychosocial group interventions for ovarian cancer survivors has been limited. Drawing from elements of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), we developed and conducted preliminary testing of an Internet-based group intervention tailored specifically to meet the needs of ovarian cancer survivors. The Internet-based platform facilitated home delivery of the psychosocial intervention to a group of cancer survivors for whom attending face-to-face programs could be difficult given their physical limitations and the small number of ovarian cancer survivors at any one treatment site. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and assess the usability, acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary intended effects of an Internet-based group stress management intervention for ovarian cancer survivors delivered via a tablet or laptop. Methods: In total, 9 ovarian cancer survivors provided feedback during usability testing. Subsequently, 19 survivors participated in 5 waves of field testing of the 10-week group intervention led by 2 psychologists. The group met weekly for 2 hours via an Internet-based videoconference platform. Structured interviews and weekly evaluations were used to elicit feedback on the website and intervention content. Before and after the intervention, measures of mood, quality of life (QOL), perceived stress, sleep, and social support were administered. Paired t tests were used to examine changes in psychosocial measures over time. Results: Usability results indicated that participants (n=9) performed basic tablet functions quickly with no errors and performed website functions easily with a low frequency of errors. In the field trial (n=19), across 5 groups, the 10-week intervention was well attended. Perceived stress (P=.03) and ovarian cancer-specific QOL (P=.01) both improved significantly during the course of the intervention. Trends toward decreased distress (P=.18) and greater physical (P=.05) and functional well-being (P=.06) were also observed. Qualitative interviews revealed that the most common obstacles participants experienced were technical issues and the time commitment for practicing the techniques taught in the program. Participants reported that the intervention helped them to overcome a sense of isolation and that they appreciated the ability to participate at home. Conclusions: An Internet-based group intervention tailored specifically for ovarian cancer survivors is highly usable and acceptable with moderate levels of feasibility. Preliminary psychosocial outcomes indicate decreases in perceived stress and improvements in ovarian cancer-specific QOL following the intervention. A randomized clinical trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of this promising intervention for ovarian cancer survivors.

  • eHealth for patients with cancer. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Johanna Ringwald; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Demands and Needs for Psycho-Oncological eHealth Interventions in Women With Cancer: Cross-Sectional Study


    Background: Over the last decade, a growing body of studies regarding the application of eHealth and various digital interventions has been published and are widely used in the psycho-oncological care. However, the effectiveness of eHealth applications in psycho-oncological care is still questioned due to missing considerations regarding evidence-based studies on the demands and needs in cancer-affected patients. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the cancer-affected women’s needs and wishes for psycho-oncological content topics in eHealth applications and whether women with cancer differ in their content topics and eHealth preferences regarding their experienced psychological burden. Methods: Patients were recruited via an electronic online survey through social media, special patient Internet platforms, and patient networks (both inpatients and outpatients, University Hospital Tuebingen, Germany). Participant demographics, preferences for eHealth and psycho-oncological content topics, and their experienced psychological burden of distress, quality of life, and need for psychosocial support were evaluated. Results: Of the 1172 patients who responded, 716 were included in the study. The highest preference for psycho-oncological content topics reached anxiety, ability to cope, quality of life, depressive feelings, and adjustment toward a new life situation. eHealth applications such as Web-based applications, websites, blogs, info email, and consultation hotline were considered to be suitable to convey these content topics. Psychological burden did not influence the preference rates according to psycho-oncological content and eHealth applications. Conclusions: Psycho-oncological eHealth applications may be very beneficial for women with cancer, especially when they address psycho-oncological content topics like anxiety, ability to cope, depressive feelings, self-esteem, or adjustment to a new life situation. The findings of this study indicate that psycho-oncological eHealth applications are a promising medium to improve the psychosocial care and enhance individual disease management and engagement among women with cancer.

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Mats Christiansen; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Adherence to Report and Patient Perception of an Interactive App for Managing Symptoms During Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Descriptive Study of Logged...


    Background: Patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer experience symptoms related to both the cancer itself and its treatment, and it is evident that patients with prostate cancer have unmet supportive care needs related to their disease. Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the amount of research within the field of mobile health and the use of apps as tools for managing illness. The main challenge is to develop a mobile technology to its full potential of being interactive in real time. The interactive app Interaktor, which aims to identify and manage symptoms in real time includes (1) a function for patients’ assessment of the occurrence, frequency, and distress of symptoms; (2) a connection to a monitoring Web interface; (3) a risk assessment model that sends alerts via text message to health care providers; (4) continuous access to evidence-based self-care advice and links to relevant websites for more information; and (5) graphs for the patients and health care providers to view the history of symptom reporting. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate user behavior, adherence to reporting, and the patients’ experiences of using Interaktor during radiotherapy for localized advanced prostate cancer. Methods: The patients were instructed to report daily during the time of treatment and then for an additional 3 weeks. Logged data from patients’ use of the app were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Interview data about experiences of using the app were analyzed with content analysis. Results: A total of 66 patients participated in the study. Logged data showed that adherence to daily reporting of symptoms was high (87%). The patients used all the symptoms included in the app. Of the reports, 15.6% generated alerts to the health care providers. Overall, the patients found that it was easy and not particularly time-consuming to send a daily report, and many described it as becoming a routine. Reporting symptoms facilitated reflection on their symptoms and gave them a sense of security. Few technological problems were reported. Conclusions: The use of Interaktor increased patients’ sense of security and their reflections on their own well-being and thereby served as a supportive tool for the self-management of symptoms during treatment of prostate cancer. Some further development of the app’s content might be beneficial for future use.

  • Woman using the WoMMeN hub (montage). Source: The Authors /; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    “Thanks for Letting Us All Share Your Mammogram Experience Virtually”: Developing a Web-Based Hub for Breast Cancer Screening


    Background: The decision around whether to attend breast cancer screening can often involve making sense of confusing and contradictory information on its risks and benefits. The Word of Mouth Mammogram e-Network (WoMMeN) project was established to create a Web-based resource to support decision making regarding breast cancer screening. This paper presents data from our user-centered approach in engaging stakeholders (both health professionals and service users) in the design of this Web-based resource. Our novel approach involved creating a user design group within Facebook to allow them access to ongoing discussion between researchers, radiographers, and existing and potential service users. Objective: This study had two objectives. The first was to examine the utility of an online user design group for generating insight for the creation of Web-based health resources. We sought to explore the advantages and limitations of this approach. The second objective was to analyze what women want from a Web-based resource for breast cancer screening. Methods: We recruited a user design group on Facebook and conducted a survey within the group, asking questions about design considerations for a Web-based breast cancer screening hub. Although the membership of the Facebook group varied over time, there were 71 members in the Facebook group at the end point of analysis. We next conducted a framework analysis on 70 threads from Facebook and a thematic analysis on the 23 survey responses. We focused additionally on how the themes were discussed by the different stakeholders within the context of the design group. Results: Two major themes were found across both the Facebook discussion and the survey data: (1) the power of information and (2) the hub as a place for communication and support. Information was considered as empowering but also recognized as threatening. Communication and the sharing of experiences were deemed important, but there was also recognition of potential miscommunication within online discussion. Health professionals and service users expressed the same broad concerns, but there were subtle differences in their opinions. Importantly, the themes were triangulated between the Facebook discussions and the survey data, supporting the validity of an online user design group. Conclusions: Online user design groups afford a useful method for understanding stakeholder needs. In contrast to focus groups, they afford access to users from diverse geographical locations and traverse time constraints, allowing more follow-ups to responses. The use of Facebook provides a familiar and naturalistic setting for discussion. Although we acknowledge the limitations in the sample, this approach has allowed us to understand the views of stakeholders in the user-centered design of the WoMMeN hub for breast cancer screening.

  • Community dining, sharing stories, good quality of life. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Impact of Participation in Online Cancer Communities on Patient Reported Outcomes: Systematic Review


    Background: In recent years, the question of how patients’ participating in online communities affects various patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been investigated in several ways. Objectives: This study aimed to systematically review all relevant literature identified using key search terms, with regard to, first, changes in PROs for cancer patients who participate in online communities and, second, the characteristics of patients who report such effects. Methods: A computerized search of the literature via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect was performed. Last search was conducted in June 2017. Studies with the following terms were included: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or Internet). A total of 21 studies were included and independently assessed by 2 investigators using an 11-item quality checklist. Results: The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 12 were of high quality, eight were of adequate quality, and only one was of low quality. Most of the respondents were women (about 80%), most with breast cancer; their mean age was 50 years. The patients who were active in online support groups were mostly younger and more highly educated than the nonusers. The investigated PROs included general well-being (ie, mood and health), anxiety, depression, quality of life, posttraumatic growth, and cancer-related concerns. Only marginal effects—that is, PRO improvements—were found; in most cases they were insignificant, and in some cases they were contradictory. Conclusions: The main shortcoming of this kind of study is the lack of methodological instruments for reliable measurements. Furthermore, some patients who participate in online communities or interact with peers via Internet do not expect to measure changes in their PROs. If cancer survivors want to meet other survivors and share information or get support, online communities can be a trustworthy and reliable platform to facilitate opportunities or possibilities to make this happen.

  • Source: Walkingspree Inc /; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Comparison of Internet and Telephone Interventions for Weight Loss Among Cancer Survivors: Randomized Controlled Trial and Feasibility Study


    Background: Weight loss interventions have been successfully delivered via several modalities, but recent research has focused on more disseminable and sustainable means such as telephone- or Internet-based platforms. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare an Internet-delivered weight loss intervention to a comparable telephone-delivered weight loss intervention. Methods: This randomized pilot study examined the effects of 6-month telephone- and Internet-delivered social cognitive theory–based weight loss interventions among 37 cancer survivors. Measures of body composition, physical activity, diet, and physical performance were the outcomes of interest. Results: Participants in the telephone intervention (n=13) showed greater decreases in waist circumference (–0.75 cm for telephone vs –0.09 cm for Internet, P=.03) than the Internet condition (n=24), and several other outcomes trended in the same direction. Measures of engagement (eg, number of telephone sessions completed and number of log-ins) suggest differences between groups which may account for the difference in outcomes. Conclusions: Cancer survivors in the telephone group evidenced better health outcomes than the Internet group. Group differences may be due to higher engagement in the telephone group. Incorporating a telephone-based component into existing weight loss programs for cancer survivors may help enhance the reach of the intervention while minimizing costs. More research is needed on how to combine Internet and telephone weight loss intervention components so as to maximize engagement and outcomes. Trial Registration: NCT01311856; (Archived by WebCite at

  • Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Mobile Breast Cancer Survivorship Care App: Pilot Study


    Background: Cancer survivors living in rural areas experience unique challenges due to additional burdens, such as travel and limited access to specialists. Rural survivors of breast cancer have reported poorer outcomes, poorer mental health and physical functioning, and lower-than-average quality of life compared to urban survivors. Objective: To explore the feasibility and acceptability of developing a mobile health survivorship care app to facilitate care coordination; support medical, psychosocial, and practical needs; and improve survivors' long-term health outcomes. Methods: An interactive prototype app, SmartSurvivor, was developed that included recommended survivorship care plan components. The prototype's feasibility and acceptability were tested by a sample of breast cancer survivors (n=6), primary care providers (n=4), and an oncologist (n=1). Results: Overall, both survivors and providers felt that SmartSurvivor was a potentially valuable tool to support long-term survivorship care plan objectives. Portability, accessibility, and having one place for all contact, treatment, symptom tracking, and medication summaries was highly valued. Conclusions: Our pilot study indicates that SmartSurvivor is a feasible and acceptable approach to meeting survivorship care objectives and the needs of both breast cancer survivors and their health care providers. Exploration of mobile health options for supporting survivorship care plan needs is a promising area of research.

  • Source: Shutterstock; Copyright: Rocketclips, Inc.; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    A Lifestyle Intervention via Email in Minority Breast Cancer Survivors: Randomized Parallel-Group Feasibility Study


    Background: Our data have indicated that minority breast cancer survivors are receptive to participating in lifestyle interventions delivered via email or the Web, yet few Web-based studies exist in this population. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary results of an email-delivered diet and activity intervention program, “A Lifestyle Intervention Via Email (ALIVE),” delivered to a sample of racial and ethnic minority breast cancer survivors. Methods: Survivors (mean age: 52 years, 83% [59/71] African American) were recruited and randomized to receive either the ALIVE program’s 3-month physical activity track or its 3-month dietary track. The fully automated system provided tools for self-monitoring and goal setting, tailored content, and automated phone calls. Descriptive statistics and mixed-effects models were computed to examine the outcomes of the study. Results: Upon completion, 44 of 71 survivors completed the study. Our “intention-to-treat” analysis revealed that participants in the physical activity track made greater improvements in moderate to vigorous activity than those in the dietary track (+97 vs. +49 min/week, P<.001). Similarly, reductions in total sedentary time among those in the physical activity track (−304 vs. −59 min/week, P<.001) was nearly 5 times greater than that for participants in the dietary track. Our completers case analysis indicated that participants in the dietary track made improvements in the intake of fiber (+4.4 g/day), fruits and vegetables (+1.0 cup equivalents/day), and reductions in saturated fat (−2.3 g/day) and trans fat (−0.3 g/day) (all P<.05). However, these improvements in dietary intake were not significantly different from the changes observed by participants in the physical activity track (all P>.05). Process evaluation data indicated that most survivors would recommend ALIVE to other cancer survivors (97%), were satisfied with ALIVE (82%), and felt that ALIVE was effective (73%). However, survivors expressed concerns about the functionality of the interactive emails. Conclusions: ALIVE appears to be feasible for racial and ethnic minority cancer survivors and showed promising results for larger implementation. Although survivors favored the educational content, a mobile phone app and interactive emails that work on multiple email domains may help to boost adherence rates and to improve satisfaction with the Web-based platform. Trial Registration: NCT02722850; (Archived by WebCite at

  • Source:; Copyright: David Castillo Dominici; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Health Care Providers’ Knowledge of HPV Vaccination, Barriers, and Strategies in a State With Low HPV Vaccine Receipt: Mixed-Methods Study


    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is below national goals in the United States. Health care providers are at the forefront of improving vaccination in the United States, given their close interactions with patients and parents. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the associations between demographic and practice characteristics of the health care providers with the knowledge of HPV vaccination and HPV vaccine guidelines. Furthermore, our aim was to contextualize the providers’ perceptions of barriers to HPV vaccination and strategies for improving vaccination in a state with low HPV vaccine receipt. Methods: In this mixed-methods study, participating providers (N=254) were recruited from statewide pediatric, family medicine, and nursing organizations in Utah. Participants completed a Web-based survey of demographics, practice characteristics, HPV vaccine knowledge (≤10 correct vs 11-12 correct answers), and knowledge of HPV vaccine guidelines (correct vs incorrect). Demographic and practice characteristics were compared using chi-square and Fisher exact tests for HPV knowledge outcomes. Four open-ended questions pertaining to the barriers and strategies for improving HPV vaccination were content analyzed. Results: Family practice providers (52.2%, 71/136; P=.001), institutional or university clinics (54.0%, 20/37; P=.001), and busier clinics seeing 20 to 29 patients per day (50.0%, 28/56; P=.04) had the highest proportion of respondents with high HPV vaccination knowledge. Older providers aged 40 to 49 years (85.1%, 57/67; P=.04) and those who were a Vaccines for Children provider (78.7%, 133/169; P=.03) had the highest proportion of respondents with high knowledge of HPV vaccine recommendations. Providers perceived the lack of parental education to be the main barrier to HPV vaccination. They endorsed stronger, consistent, and more direct provider recommendations for HPV vaccination delivered to parents through printed materials available in clinical settings and public health campaigns. Hesitancy to recommend the HPV vaccine to patients persisted among some providers. Conclusions: Providers require support to eliminate barriers to recommending HPV vaccination in clinical settings. Additionally, providers endorsed the need for parental educational materials and instructions on framing HPV vaccination as a priority cancer prevention mechanism for all adolescents.

  • Laptop with MyAVL homepage (montage). Source: The Authors /; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Supporting Lung Cancer Patients With an Interactive Patient Portal: Feasibility Study


    Background: MyAVL is an interactive portal for cancer patients that aims to support lung cancer patients. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and usability of the patient portal and generate preliminary evidence on its impact. Methods: Lung cancer patients currently or recently treated with curative intent could use MyAVL noncommittally for 4 months. Feasibility, usability, and preliminary impact (ie, patient activation, quality of life, and physical activity) were studied by means of questionnaires, a focus group, and analysis of user log data. Results: We included 37 of 123 eligible patients (mean age 59.6 years). The majority of responses (82%) were positive about using MyAVL, 69% saw it as a valuable addition to care, and 56% perceived increased control over their health. No positive effects could be substantiated on the impact measures. Conclusions: MyAVL appears to be a feasible and user-friendly, multifunctional eHealth program for a selected group of lung cancer patients. However, it needs further improvements to positively impact patient outcomes.

  • The ePRO tool, used in the study (montage). Source: The authors / placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Electronic-Based Patient-Reported Outcomes: Willingness, Needs, and Barriers in Adjuvant and Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients


    Background: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role as an adjunct to clinical outcome parameters in measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In fact, PROs are already the accepted gold standard for collecting data about patients’ subjective perception of their own state of health. Currently, paper-based surveys of PRO still predominate; however, knowledge regarding the feasibility of and barriers to electronic-based PRO (ePRO) acceptance remains limited. Objective: The objective of this trial was to analyze the willingness, specific needs, and barriers of adjuvant breast cancer (aBC) and metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients in nonexposed (no exposure to electronic assessment) and exposed (after exposure to electronic assessment decision, whether a tablet-based questionnaire is favored) settings before implementing digital ePRO assessment in relation to health status. We also investigated whether providing support can increase the patients’ willingness to participate in such programs. Methods: The nonexposed patients only answered a paper-based questionnaire, whereas the exposed patients filled out both paper- and tablet-based questionnaires. The assessment comprised socioeconomic variables, HRQoL, preexisting technical skills, general attitude toward electronic-based surveys, and potential barriers in relation to health status. Furthermore, nonexposed patients were asked about the existing need for technological support structures. In the course of data evaluation, we performed a frequency analysis as well as chi-square tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Subsequently, relative risks analysis, univariate categorical regression (CATREG), and mediation analyses (Hayes’ bias-corrected bootstrap) were performed. Results: A total of 202 female breast cancer patients completed the PRO assessment (nonexposed group: n=96 patients; exposed group: n=106 patients). Self-reported technical skills were higher in exposed patients (2.79 vs 2.33, P ≤.001). Significant differences were found in relation to willingness to use ePRO (92.3% in the exposed group vs 59% in the nonexposed group; P=.001). Multiple barriers were identified, and most of them showed statistically significant differences in favor of the exposed patients (ie, data security [13% in the exposed patients vs 30% in the nonexposed patients; P=.003] and no prior technology usage [5% in the exposed group vs 15% in the nonexposed group; P=.02]), whereas the differences in disease burden (somatic dimension: 4% in the exposed group vs 9% in the nonexposed group; P=.13) showed no significance. In nonexposed patients, requests for support services were identified, which could increase their ePRO willingness. Conclusions: Significant barriers in relation to HRQoL, cancer-related restrictions, and especially the setting of the survey were identified in this trial. Thus, it is necessary to address and eliminate these barriers to ensure data accuracy and reliability for future ePRO assessments. Exposure seems to be a potential option to increase willingness to use ePRO and to reduce barriers.

  • Reynolds Army Community Hospital, where staff are shown using Web-based tools. Source: Flickr; Copyright: Ben Sherman; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Development, Feasibility, and Small-Scale Implementation of a Web-Based Prognostic Tool—Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Survival Calculator


    Background: Population datasets and the Internet are playing an ever-growing role in the way cancer information is made available to providers, patients, and their caregivers. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Survival Calculator (SEER*CSC) is a Web-based cancer prognostic tool that uses SEER data, a large population dataset, to provide physicians with highly valid, evidence-based prognostic estimates for increasing shared decision-making and improving patient-provider communication of complex health information. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop, test, and implement SEER*CSC. Methods: An iterative approach was used to develop the SEER*CSC. Based on input from cancer patient advocacy groups and physicians, an initial version of the tool was developed. Next, providers from 4 health care delivery systems were recruited to do formal usability testing of SEER*CSC. A revised version of SEER*CSC was then implemented in two health care delivery sites using a real-world clinical implementation approach, and usage data were collected. Post-implementation follow-up interviews were conducted with site champions. Finally, patients from two cancer advocacy groups participated in usability testing. Results: Overall feedback of SEER*CSC from both providers and patients was positive, with providers noting that the tool was professional and reliable, and patients finding it to be informational and helpful to use when discussing their diagnosis with their provider. However, use during the small-scale implementation was low. Reasons for low usage included time to enter data, not having treatment options in the tool, and the tool not being incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR). Patients found the language in its current version to be too complex. Conclusions: The implementation and usability results showed that participants were enthusiastic about the use and features of SEER*CSC, but sustained implementation in a real-world clinical setting faced significant challenges. As a result of these findings, SEER*CSC is being redesigned with more accessible language for a public facing release. Meta-tools, which put different tools in context of each other, are needed to assist in understanding the strengths and limitations of various tools and their place in the clinical decision-making pathway. The continued development and eventual release of prognostic tools should include feedback from multidisciplinary health care teams, various stakeholder groups, patients, and caregivers.

Citing this Article

Right click to copy or hit: ctrl+c (cmd+c on mac)